Why Self-Driving Cars Must Be Programmed to Kill
- October 22, 2015
When it comes to automotive technology, self-driving cars are all the rage. Standard features on many ordinary cars include intelligent cruise control, parallel parking programs, and even automatic overtakingвЂ”features that permit you to sit back, albeit a little uneasily, and let a computer do the driving.
So itвЂ™ll come as no surprise that many car manufacturers are beginning to think about cars that take the driving out of your arms altogether (see вЂњDrivers Thrust TeslaвЂ™s Autopilot Beyond Its AbilitiesвЂќ).В These cars will be safer, cleaner, and more fuel-efficient than their manual counterparts. And yet they can never be ideally safe.
And that raises some difficult issues. How should the car be programmed to act in the event of an unavoidable accident? Should it minimize the loss of life, even if it means sacrificing the occupants, or should it protect the occupants at all costs? Should it choose inbetween these extremes at random? (See also вЂњHow to Help Self-Driving Cars Make Ethical Decisions.вЂќ)
The answers to these ethical questions are significant because they could have a big influence on the way self-driving cars are accepted in society. Who would buy a car programmed to sacrifice the possessor?
So can science help? Today, we get an reaction of sorts thanks to the work of Jean-Francois Bonnefon at the Toulouse School of Economics in France and a duo of pals. These guys say that even however there is no right or wrong reaction to these questions, public opinion will play a strong role in how, or even whether, self-driving cars become widely accepted.
So they set out to detect the publicвЂ™s opinion using the fresh science of experimental ethics. This involves posing ethical dilemmas to a large number of people to see how they react. And the results make for interesting, if somewhat predictable, reading. вЂњOur results provide but a very first foray into the thorny issues raised by moral algorithms for autonomous vehicles,вЂќ they say.
Here is the nature of the dilemma. Imagine that in the not-too-distant future, you own a self-driving car. One day, while you are driving along, an unfortunate set of events causes the car to head toward a crowd of ten people crossing the road. It cannot stop in time but it can avoid killing ten people by steering into a wall. However, this collision would kill you, the holder and occupant. What should it do?
One way to treatment this kind of problem is to act in a way that minimizes the loss of life. By this way of thinking, killing one person is better than killing Ten.
But that treatment may have other consequences. If fewer people buy self-driving cars because they are programmed to sacrifice their owners, then more people are likely to die because ordinary cars are involved in so many more accidents. The result is a Catch-22 situation.
Bonnefon and co are seeking to find a way through this ethical dilemma by gauging public opinion. Their idea is that the public is much more likely to go along with a script that aligns with their own views.
So these guys posed these kinds of ethical dilemmas to several hundred workers on AmazonвЂ™s Mechanical Turk to find out what they thought. The participants were given scripts in which one or more pedestrians could be saved if a car were to swerve into a barrier, killing its occupant or a pedestrian.
At the same time, the researchers varied some of the details such as the actual number of pedestrians that could be saved, whether the driver or an on-board computer made the decision to swerve and whether the participants were asked to imagine themselves as the occupant or an anonymous person.
The results are interesting, if predictable. In general, people are convenient with the idea that self-driving vehicles should be programmed to minimize the death toll.
This utilitarian treatment is certainly laudable but the participants were willing to go only so far. вЂњ[Participants] were not as certain that autonomous vehicles would be programmed that way in realityвЂ”and for a good reason: they actually wished others to cruise in utilitarian autonomous vehicles, more than they desired to buy utilitarian autonomous vehicles themselves,вЂќ conclude Bonnefon and co.
And therein lies the paradox.В People are in favor of cars that sacrifice the occupant to save other livesвЂ”as long they donвЂ™t have to drive one themselves.
Bonnefon and co are quick to point out that their work represents the very first few steps into what is likely to be a fiendishly complicated moral labyrinth. Other issues that will need to be factored into future thinking are the nature of uncertainty and the assignment of blame.В
Bonnefon and co say these issues raise many significant questions: вЂњIs it acceptable for an autonomous vehicle to avoid a motorcycle by swerving into a wall, considering that the probability of survival is greater for the passenger of the car, than for the rider of the motorcycle? Should different decisions be made when children are on board, since they both have a longer time ahead of them than adults, and had less agency in being in the car in the very first place? If a manufacturer offers different versions of its moral algorithm, and a buyer knowingly chose one of them, is the buyer to blame for the harmful consequences of the algorithmвЂ™s decisions?вЂќ
These problems cannot be disregarded, say the team: вЂњAs we are about to endow millions of vehicles with autonomy, taking algorithmic morality gravely has never been more urgent.вЂќ